Renewable building blocks from complex mixed and wet waste streams 

Publieke samenvatting / Public summary

A large share of CO2 emissions by industry is related to the production of fossil-based chemicals
(approximately 3.6Mton oil was used in the petrochemical industry in 2021 (extrapolating monthly
figures published for the first half of 2021)[1], and all this oil will be converted in CO2 at the end of life
of products, if they are not recycled. By transitioning towards circular and biobased (bulk and platform)
chemicals the CO2 emissions of this sector can be strongly reduced. The rising prices of conventional
(oil-based) feedstock have further intensified the incentive for industry to transition towards
alternatives. However, as seen today, the quantities of potential biobased/circular input streams to
provide these chemicals is by far not enough to source the demand of industry. Therefore, the aim of
industry is to efficiently use all available alternative, circular, and renewable feedstock; this includes
the so-called complex and mixed waste streams.

To provide industry with circular and biobased bulk and platform chemicals new value chains need to
be developed where ‘challenging’ waste sources (e.g., agro/food residues, mixed biomass/plastic,
sludges etc.) are converted by innovative technologies (based on hydrolysis, pyrolysis & gasification)
into new chemicals. These chemicals can be used to replace current fossil-based chemicals. ReBBloCS
will develop these value chains in collaboration with relevant stakeholders (private sector, technology
providers & knowledge institutes). The goal is to close the carbon cycles of the specific bulk- and
platform chemicals considered by ReBBloCS as much as possible by utilizing and valorizing (fractions
of) the considered complex waste streams.

Korte omschrijving
The activities of the project are structured along the following perspectives:
• Increasing the technological readiness levels: The technology providers and knowledge
institutes will develop the required conversion technologies and value chains.
Value chains goes along the path of: Source (waste) à pre-treatment à conversion
(hydrolysis/pyrolysis/gasification) à post-treatment à Circular & biobased chemicals for
• Solving non technological issues: The development of the decision tool allows partners to
determine which route is viable in which instance. Also, relevant stakeholders will address
legislative and policy related issues paving the way for successful implementation of circular
solutions & value chains.
• Ensuring implementation: Through learning communities, knowledge dissemination and
implementation strategies societal and industry awareness is strengthened and uptake of the
developed value chains by industry is ensured.

ReBBloCS develops new value chains for a total of 9 circular/biobased bulk and platform chemicals for
different industry sectors. Related results are:
- A clear scope of the 7 source streams (the “waste”), i.e., mapped both volumes and
compositions of available streams from the participating waste providers.
- Determined influence of impurities on chemical properties and cost price
- Determined mass-energy balances of conversion technologies
- Exploitation: development of 5 pilot plants
- A decision tool considering the full value chains in terms of economic & environmental impact
to determine which route towards a specific chemical is optimal.
- Knowledge dissemination (incl. learning community) and implementation strategy